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Calp bilingual education

BICS/CALP - University of Albert

C.BICS, CALP and Language Immersion Program A notable feature of the Canadian bilingual education is termed the language immersion program. Introduced in the These terms are commonly used in discussion of bilingual education. They arise from the early work of Cummins (1984) in which he demonstrated his ideas about second CALP is Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, and, as the name suggests, is the basis for a child's ability to cope with the academic demands placed upon her in the CALP: Cognitive academic language proficiency. The language ability required for academic achievement. Castañeda v. Pickard Transitional Bilingual Education If the school is a bilingual school, and the child is expected to learn two new languages, to an academic level, without any impact on their academic progress, what

BICS and CALP - Meeting the Needs of English Language Learner

  1. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) ≠ CALP Traditionally, it is thought that CALP takes 5-7 years to
  2. BICS/CALP - Instructional Application. Cognitive Undemanding. Context Reduced . Context Embedded. Communication. Communication. Cognitively Demanding Comm. Baker, C
  3. CALP = academic language. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) focuses on proficiency in academic language or language used in the classroom in the
  4. bilingual education can only be resolved if there is an adequate conceptualiza-tion of the nature of language proficiency and of its assessment, particularly in
  5. BICS/CALP, acronyms of Basics Interpersonal Communication Skills and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, occurs in the contrastive relationship between academic
  6. Crossfire, (2000) and Reading and the Bilingual Student: Fact and Friction, (2003c). He makes a distinction between language that is commonly used in conversational
  7. s (1979) between basic interpersonal communicative skills and cognitive academic language

The relevance of this analysis for the concepts of semilingualism, code-switching, and bilingual education is outlined. Semilingualism is a manifestation of low CALP Proficiency (CALP). Cummins (1984) researched these two levels of proficiency and discovered that children may be proficient in the BICS in English, but they may The distinction between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive. academic language proficiency (CALP) was introduced by Cummins (1979, 1981a) in Theories of second language acquisition enable s us to develop a deeper understanding of how children learn a second language. Considering these theories and our BICS refers to conversational fluency in a language while CALP refers to students' ability to understand and express, in both oral and written modes, concepts and ideas

Image result for bics calp | Supportive, Student, Person

and what are the implications for bilingual education? BICS and CALP are concepts introduced by James Cummins in 1979 to account for the variation in the amount of conversational speech and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). BICS-CALP gap The BICS and CALP gap is the discrepancy between ELLs' conversational and Bilingual education enhances third language acquisition. Applied psycholinguistics, 21 (1), 66-79. Swain, M., Lapkin, S., Rowen, N., & Hart, D. (1990). The role of The BICS/CALP distinction was embedded within a broader framework that specified the role of societal power relations in framing both the organization of schooling and

Class Type: Transitional Bilingual Education Subject: Math Teaching Method: Direct Teaching (students were sitting on the rug) with manipulatives (pie graph) Time of BICS and CALP are the shortened forms for what?2. What are the main differences between those two language levels? 3. Why do BICS and CALP play such an important Characteristics of CALP: Academic Proficiency. Includes formal and academic registers of the language ; Acquired mostly after the age of five, and acquisition

Reflections on Cummins (1980), 'The Cross-Lingual

  1. CALP bezeichnet eine sprachenübergreifende Grundfähigkeit, Sprache als Werkzeug zur Bewältigung intellektuell anspruchsvoller Situationen zu nutzen und ermöglicht eine
  2. ority students' levels of language proficiency (Rolstad and MacSwan, 2008). Minority students' teachers need to be aware of those concepts and distinguish.
  3. s in 1984, are fundamental in shedding some light on the development of language proficiency by immigrant students. In the author's words 'BICS refers to conversational fluency in a language while CALP refers to.
  4. s It is argued that a dimension of cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP) can be empirically distinguished from interpersonal communicative skills such as accent and oral fluency in both Li and L2, and that cognitive/ academic proficiencies in both L1 and L2 are manifestations of the same underlying.
  5. Characteristics of CALP: Academic Proficiency. Includes formal and academic registers of the language ; Acquired mostly after the age of five, and acquisition continues throughout life; Includes high levels of literacy; Includes tens of thousands of specialized words relating to academic and formal register; Proficiency strongly correlated with academic success; The differences between these.
  6. While many students may develop BICS first, some may develop CALP first. Indeed, both skills may develop equally fast as one is not wholly dependent on the other. For more information you can check out the following: Baker, Colin (2011-08-22). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Channel View Publications. Kindle Edition

  1. s (1984) in which he demonstrated his ideas about second language development in a simple matrix. BICS describes the development of conversational fluency (Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills) in the second language, whereas CALP describes the use of language in.
  2. The distinction between BICS and CALP has exerted a significant impact on a variety of educational policies and practices in both North America and the United Kingdom (e.g. Cline & Frederickson, 1996). Specific ways in which educators' misunderstanding of the nature of language proficiency have contributed to the creation of academic difficulties among bilingual students have been.
  3. bilingual education can only be resolved if there is an adequate conceptualiza-tion of the nature of language proficiency and of its assessment, particularly in relation to academic achievement. He returns in this text to his influential distinction made earlier (1979) between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP).This the-ory.
  4. CALP: Cognitive academic language proficiency. The language ability required for academic achievement. Castañeda v. Pickard Transitional Bilingual Education Program: This program, also known as early-exit bilingual education, utilizes a student's primary language in instruction. The program maintains and develops skills in the primary language and culture while introducing, maintaining.
  5. --Delana H Stewart Recently, Dr. John Landon presented a workshop on Bilingualism and Multilingualism at an AERC family education conference. Dr. Landon was Head of the Department of Educational Studies at the University of Edinburgh until his retirement in 2005. He is an international expert on bilingualism and bilingual education, having worked in many Europea
  6. I originally wrote the below text for the fall newsletter for the American Educational Research Association Bilingual Education Special Interest Group and thought I would share it here with links as well.. At its core, anti-Blackness has always sought to question the full humanity of Black people. During the time of slavery, questions about the full humanity of Black people were framed within.
  7. s, 1980, 1981b) showing that educators and policy-makers frequently conflated conversational and academic dimensions of English language proficiency and that this conflation contributed significantly to the creation of academic difficulties for students who.

NALDIC EAL guidance Bilingualism and Second Language

While Cummins made invaluable contributions to one's understanding of second language development and the need for bilingual education, his theory of BICS and CALP is largely descriptive and does not explain the underlying cognitive processes involved in second language development. Vygotsky (1986/1934), writing more than 45 years before Cummins, provides theoretical insight into this process. While BICS/CALP can be used to describe the language proficiency of single language students, it is primarily used as a way to understand and evaluate the language level of students learning English as a second language. Cummins studies of second language learners indicates that children can develop BICS (social language) in 2 years, but it takes 5 -7 years for a child to work on the same.

BICS ,CALP, AND. CLIL SUDIRMAN. 21502073052. ENGLISH EDUCATION GRADUATE PROGRAM MALANG ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY BICS AND CALP The acronyms BICS and CALP refer to a distinction introduced by Cummins (1979) between basic interpersonal communicative skills and cognitive academic language proficiency. Failure to take account of the BICS/CALP (conversational/academic) distinction has resulted in. BICS/CALP - Instructional Application. Cognitive Undemanding. Context Reduced . Context Embedded. Communication. Communication. Cognitively Demanding Comm. Baker, C. (2006). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. One to one instruction. Demonstration. Oral Presentation w/o objects. Reading. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) distinction. The article reviews the BICS/CALP distinction in relation to other dichotomies of language proficiency, and promotes an alternative view of language development in school for bilingual children known as second language instructional competence, or SLIC. While SLIC has seemed useful to many in the field, there is a need for further. Nowadays, at the beginning of the XXI century, bilingual education is considered to be quite a promising area. Over the course of time, multiple countries around the world have accumulated vast experience of bilingual education in the field of international education, starting from primary school stage. One of the leading programs in this area is the International Baccalaureate program which.

The language learning theories of Professor J

BICS and CALP explained J. Cummins Interview with Jim Cummins: California Reader (Spring 2001) Biographical Note: Jim Cummins teaches in the Department of Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto. His research has focused on the education of bilingual students and the possibilities and pitfalls of technology in education. The conceptual distinction between these two levels highlights misconceptions about the nature of language proficiency which contributes to academic failure among bilingual students. Differences in the rate of acquisition of the two levels needs to be considered so that the academic language education of bilingual children with good conversational English ability does not suffer. An. to bilingual education and laws regarding languages and teacher training. The purpose is to outline the extent to which this background is applied into actual contexts. Therefore, the third part is the empirical study that is a comparative case-study through a qualitative approach into two bilingual schools in Sweden. The central focus is on teachers' opinions about challenges, teaching. BICS and CALP. 2. 1.The Common Underlying Proficiency Theory 2.Context Embedded and Context Reduced Communication (Cummins, 1981) 3. Context embedded communication exists when there is a good degree of contextual support in communications, e.g. body language, gestures, intonation etc. Context reduced communication there are very few clues to.

Developing ELL Programs: Glossary - e

As educators, it is imperative to promote the most effective stage of the threshold theory to ensure all ELLs are given the same opportunity of learning academic content with high cognitive effects through additive bilingual programs that support the linguistic and cultural awareness of our diverse nation Deaf Bilingual Education advocates for the development of the natural Signed Language of the Deaf community and the majority spoken/written language. Like hearing bilingual students, Deaf students are expected to develop receptive and expressive proficiency in two languages. For Deaf students, these skills can be grouped into signacy, literacy and oracy. Fingerspelling skills are seen as a. Class Type: Transitional Bilingual Education Subject: Math Teaching Method: Direct Teaching (students were sitting on the rug) with manipulatives (pie graph) Time of Observation: 1:10-1:25 PM Date: 9/11/09 Total Students: 20 Language of Instruction: English Time On Task (30 second Intervals) Off Task Redirections (30 second Intervals) Comments 1:10 -1:15 PM 10 /10(100%) 0 NA Students are. The distinction between BICS and CALP, first proposed by Cummins (1979) 4 Learning EAL should not be considered to be a Special Educational Need (SEN) and bilingual learners should not be automatically identified for SEN support, as this is likely to be inappropriate to their needs. Avoid placing children learning EAL in groups with low-achieving children or with children with SEN.

limited bilingual unless his Spanish gets promoted to a strong language. There was a time I also relied on Cummins' framework, which was taught in many of my education courses and appeared to explain why some of my young ELL students were struggling. But I am no longer convinced that the BICS/CALP framework helps us understand ELL students as well as we need to. In fact, given how it is. The politics of multiculturalism and bilingual education: Students and teachers caught in the cross-fire. (pp. 126-147). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Cummins, J. (1999). Beyond adversarial discourse: Searching for common ground in the education of bilingual students. In I. A. Heath and C. J. Serrano (Eds.) Distinguishing between BICS and CALP • 3 Educators must be careful not to link lower academic performance of ESL students with deficient cognitive ability. Often, lower academic performance can be accounted for by lack of prior knowledge and/or lack of vocabulary particular to the content being presented. As well, additional time is required by these learners to process information in a. BICS Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills ∼ Mündlichkeit. CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. Manipulation von Sprache in dekontextualisierten 'akademischen' Situationen Lesen - Arbeit mit schriftlichen Informationen ∼ Schriftlichkeit. Cummins, James (1980) The construct of language proficiency in bilingual education. In.

Ignored Bilingualism: The dark side of international

The distinction between BICS and CALP has exerted a significant impact on a variety of educational policies and practices in both North America and the United Kingdom (e.g. Cline & Frederickson, 1996). Specific ways in which educators' misunderstanding of the nature of language proficiency have contributed to the creation of academic difficulties among bilingual students have been highlighted. DOCUMENT RESUME ED 438 551 CS 217 007 AUTHOR Cummins, Jim TITLE BICS and CALP: Clarifying the Distinction. PUB DATE 1999-00-00 NOTE 7p. PUB TYPE Opinion Papers (120) EDRS PRICE MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. DESCRIPTORS *Bilingual Education Programs; Child Language; Elementary Education; *English (Second Language); Foreign Countries; *Language Acquisition; *Language Patterns; *Standard Spoken Usage. Education question _week_1_question_6.doc _week_1_question_6_video_transcript.doc . Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on. CALP VS BICS, Week 1 Question 6 help. Just from $13/Page. Order Essay. Unformatted Attachment Preview. I need 300-350 word response with 2-3 references. For each question Multimedia: Social and Academic Language Watch Social and Academic Language. Definition of bilingual education: education in an English-language school system in which students with little fluency in English are taught in both their native language and English. 引用:Merriam-Webster バイリンガル教育の歴史. 2つの言語を使用した教育は近代にも存在していましたが、 1839 年でオハイオ州でバイリンガル教育法を制定し.

A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper. DOCUMENT RESUME ED 438 551 CS 217 007 AUTHOR Cummins, Jim TITLE BICS and CALP: Clarifying the Distinction. PUB DATE 1999-00-00 NOTE 7p. PUB TYPE Opinion Papers (120) EDRS PRICE MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. DESCRIPTORS *Bilingual Education Programs; Child Language. workplace education, K-12 classrooms in both first and second language learning, bilingual education, sheltered instruction, and college-level foreign language instruction. Factors that demonstrate its success include high teacher and student interest, program enrollment, and student adjustment to future academic contexts (Grabe & Stoller, 1997). Underlying CBI's success is what Oxford and. Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. 6th ed. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Becker, Mrotzek / Schramm, Karen / Thürmann, Eike / Vollmer, Helmut Johannes (eds.) (2013). Sprache im Fach. Sprachlichkeit und fachliches Lernen. Münster: Waxmann. Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia (2012). Auf dem Weg zu einer Fachdidakti

Video: What are BICS and CALP? Colorín Colorad

fully bilingual if his acquisition of both languages was appropriately nurtured. (Escamilla, 2000). Bilingual Bootstrapping •The idea that a bilingual child's development in one language can be advanced by the other dominant language (Stein, 2016). •If a child's first language is adequately developed and there is no indication of developmental delays, it can provide the basis for the. What is the Common Underlying Proficiency? The Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) model or the 'one balloon theory' described by Jim Cummins purports that proficiencies involving more cognitively demanding tasks (such as literacy, content learning, abstract thinking and problem-solving) are common across languages

(PDF) BICS and CALP: Implications for SL

ERIC - ED184334 - Education Resources Information Cente

(PDF) BICS and CALP: Empirical and theoretical status of

In Bilingual Education class we had to conduct research on teaching strategies that would help ELL students in our future classrooms. I believe that these seven topics will help Latino students in learning their native language academically and learning English academically without having to lose their native tongue. These topics may also help other student What type of bilingual education does it have? Does it state the type of bilingual education? What type of bilingual are you? For how long have you been learning English? Based on your personal profile, how would you define your Spanish Lg and English Lg? (Define it with all the criteria) Give an example of a BICS subject and a CALP subject. 3 The article reviews the BICS/CALP distinction in relation to other dichotomies of language proficiency, and promotes an alternative view of language development in school for bilingual children known as second language instructional competence, or SLIC. While SLIC has seemed useful to many in the field, there is a need for further theoretical development of the concept, with attention to how. Explaining BICS and CALPby Judie HaynesClassroom teachers need to understand the difference between social language and academic language acquisition...

If bilingual education per se has not been demonstrated to improve educational outcomes, it has been shown that there is a positive correlation between sign language skills and reading proficiency for deaf children (Chamberlain & Mayberry, 2000), just as there is between the spoken language skills and reading proficiency both younger and older deaf students (Lichtenstein, 1998; Waters. Inclusion In Education. EAL and Bilingual Learners; SEND: Inclusion in the primary classroom; Information About Our Site; Leave a comment . EAL and Bilingual Learners Introduction. In January 2014, the government's annual school census (DfE, 2014) identified 18.7% of pupils at state funded Primary schools in England as having a first language known or believed to be other than English. The.

Curricula Models for ESL and Bilingual Education. IA NL. SI. TG. RN. UM. CE. TN. IT. O. N. A. L. Discussions on Program Models. Model Continuum . Assimilation-----Multiculturalism Subtractive-----Additive. English Only-----Dual Language. Submersion-Transitional-English Immersion-Dual Language-Two Way Immersion. Submersion SINK OR SWIM. SINK OR SWIM •ALL INSTRUCTION IS IN ENGLISH. Can be Push. Mind Your BICS and CALP: English Learners and Academic Language. This is a guest post from author and edtech educator Dawn Casey-Rowe. What are you doing? I asked. Translating, the student said. She was using an app to translate the article I'd assigned, reading it in Spanish even though I'd assigned it in English. Awesome, I said. I didn't need her to read in English.

cummin's BIC / CALP | Bilingual education, Language

Alvarado received her BS with teaching certificates in elementary education, psychology, bilingual education, and mathematics, and her MEd as an educational diagnostician from the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley. She received her EdD in Curriculum and Instruction with a specialization in bilingual education from the University of Houston. From 1991 to 2015, Dr. Alvarado was the director. The development of academic literacy in bilingual settings: a corpus-based research on the rise of subordination in CLIL Francisco Lorenzo Jyväskylä, 2012 Carmen Stat Bilingual teachers provide instruction in the home language for a minimum of five to six years--even when the student develops basic English language proficiency--to ensure academic success. Benefits: The program produces better academic outcomes than do transitional bilingual education or ESL programs Bilingual program whose goal is to help English learners ultimately adjust to an all English educational program. May be early-exit ( 2 nd grade) or late-exit (6 th grade). Two-Way: Bilingual program where L2 learners receive L1 instruction and L1 students receive L2 instruction. To be effective program must: Allow for development of CALP

PPT - Language Acquisition & Language Development ofHistorical Timeline of Bilingual Education in America

through a bilingual education program), and/or an appropriately certified ESL educator (for students served through an ESL program), •a parent of an English learner participating in a bilingual or ESL program, and • a campus administrator in accordance with Texas Education Code (TEC), §29.063 Titel. Probleme der bilingualen Erziehung von Immigrantenkindern und die Situation in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Hochschule. Universität Mannheim (Lehrstuhl Angl. Linguistik) Veranstaltung. HS Bilingual Education. Note. 2,0. Autor

Second Language Acquisition Theories - Bilingual Educaito

Māori and Pasifika students in bilingual education settings or transitioning into English medium schools; international fee paying students. Why use digital technologies to support learning? Integrating digital technologies into learning and teaching helps English language learners acquire a second language, and enhances motivation and confidence. English language learners benefit from the. Bilingual education is a broad term that refers to the presence of two languages in instructional settings. The term is, however, a simple label for a complex phenomenon (Cazden and Snow, p. 9) that depends upon many variables, including the native language of the students, the language of instruction, and the linguistic goal of the program, to determine which type of bilingual education is. CALP sind Sprachfertigkeiten, die höhere kognitiv Leistungen erfordern und es Lernenden erlauben, Sprache dekontextualisiert zu verwenden, d.h. nicht nur auf das hier und jetzt bezogen. Solche Fähigkeiten ermöglichen es Lernenden, in der betreffenden Sprache zu denken, Schriftlichkeit zu nutzen und sich mit Hilfe der Sprache Lerninhalte anzueignen. Diese Fertigkeiten werden Cummins.

BICS and CALP: Empirical and Theoretical Status of the

This is where we find CALP, which stands for Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency' and is the formal, bilingual education), which validates the learners' first language, or subtractive. Bilingual Education, CLIL and EMI. We provide participants with the background to current issues in CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) teaching contexts and bilingual provision and explore ways of teaching content through the medium of English (EMI). Participants will learn about pedagogical methods, strategies, techniques and. しかしcalpの習得には6~10年ほどかかるので、 認知能力が順調に育っている小学生の段階で教育言語が変わると、新言語(英語圏なら英語)でのbicsを身につけながら、日本語calpの伸長を継続しないと、どちらの言語でも年齢相応に達していない不幸な状況に. Do bilingual education programs work well for poor children from minority-language backgrounds or should they be reserved only for middle-class children from the majority or dominant group? In addressing these issues, this volume focuses not only on issues of language learning and teaching but also highlights the ways in which power relations in the wider society affect patterns of teacher.

Bilingualism or Biliteracy: Predicting the Interdependence

bilingual language development and resources for children who are deaf or hard of hearing with additional needs. ©JDHK. Table of Contents GL-2 What is language? GL-3 Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency GL-4 Early communication GL-5 Cross-language skill development GL-6 Stages of language development GL-7 Access to language GL-8 Encouraging your. Research in the areas of special education, bilingual education, language acquisition, and reading instruction have demonstrated a significant need for native language development when teaching bilingual students with disabilities. This research review is divided into three parts to address the significant issues raised across studies in the area of bilingual special education. These areas. This section highlights some of the basic vocabulary and terminology used in modern ESL education. ESL/Bilingual Program Models. Bilingual program models; Transitional bilingual program; Developmental bilingual program; Two-way bilingual program ; ESL program models; ESL Pull Out program; ESL Class Period ; Cummins's BICS/CALP Model Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) These are the. CALP on the other hand refers to the learners' aptitude to comprehend and express, in both verbal and written forms, concepts that are significant to success in learning institutions. It is the aptitude for a learner to reason in and use a linguistic as an instrument for learning. Essentially, it is the language used by students in educational settings education have played a key role in this very unique system. The multicultural, multilingual nature of the schools and the particular teaching and learning context offer especially valuable opportunities for the development of language competence and cultural awareness. A number of key principles are integral to and underpin the language policy and practice of the European Schools. These.

BICS and CALP TEFL Handboo

The Influence of Elementary School Bilingual/ESL Programs on ELLsÕ Achievement Figure 6 presents the patterns of the academic achievement of students who begin schooling in the U.S. in kindergarten with no proficiency in English. These students do not remain English language learners throughout their schooling, but they are all ESL beginners whe Basic Tips and Information for Starting Bilingual Educators. Search this site. Bilingual Education. BICS/CALP. Reflective Writings. The 4 Language Skills. Tips. Sitemap. BICS/CALP. What is BICS/CALP? BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills): The language necessary for day to day living, including conversations with friends, and informal interactions. CALP (Cognitive Academic Language.

Understanding BICS and CALP - Principles of Language

Bilingual Education in Canada and Japan :An language education )が盛んで、80諸言語の継承教育がイマ ージ ョン形式で行われています 。 例 えば 、 カナダ第二の都市、トロントでは77言語の継承教育が放課後 、 あるいは、週末に実施さ れています (2001年度) 。 イマージョン教育の広がりはまもなく. BICS and CALP refer to a conversational/academic distinction introduced by Cummins (1979) between basic interpersonal communicative skills and cognitive academic language proficiency. Article by Cassie Szmyd. 52. English Language Classes English Language Learners Second Language Foreign Language Bilingual Classroom Classroom Language Interpersonal Communication Communication Skills Teaching.

TExES Bilingual Education Supplemental (164) Free Practice

Bilingual Education: BICS And CALP - 767 Words 123 Help M

CALP wurde academic language zu einem grundlegenden Begriff der weiteren Bildungs- und Zweitsprachforschung im angloamerikanischen Raum. Neben der akademischen Sprache findet man dort zwar auch den Begriff der language of education bzw. language in education (UNESCO), doch ist dieser so allgemein gefasst, dass er sich nicht für sprachlich Awareness of bilingual class to teaching level of grammar by the acquisition of calp might just a first. Friendly language needed for example of calp often just be immersed in a unique in. Smile when a very good conversational fluency and invalid activity. Educational resources with the analytics and appropriatefor this concept even better. Mental work with bics and calp examples of the videos. Before Bilingual Education, how was English teaching/learning approached in classrooms with ELLs in the U.S? How did Bilingual Education emerge? Name some of its programs and discuss one in detail. Remember to include scholars who contributed to the topic, and classroom applications. Laleh Initially schools had adopted the sink or swim approach also known a Krashen, Why Bilingual Education? Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, 1997. Laurence, N. Njouogwa, Osservare l'interlingua a scuola , tesi di laurea, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Facoltà di Scienze della Formazione, Corso di Laurea in Scienze della Formazione Primaria, a.a. 2005/2006

PPT - Lecture 7 Bilingualism and Bilingual education2 The ‘dual-iceberg’ representation of bilingualPPT - Language Planning PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1220258Negotiated Identity: Chapter 6: Bilingual Education